mbolivia.gif BOLIVIA is one of the poorest countries in central South America. Overall speaking, it is a less developed country.

ECONOMICALLY, it have rich reserve of natural resources and its miming industry is very important. On the other hand, about two-thirds of its population is subsistence farmers. In 2010, the national GDP is 19,649.7 millions. (World Bank, 2010) Besides, it has the highest level of income disparity in Latin America. In 2007, the income Gini coefficient was 57.3, which is a fair high score in this index.( United Nation).

SOCIALLY, there is a lack of social opportunities in Bolivia. Firstly, the general education level is quite low. The literacy rate among the adults is 91(The World Bank2008). Since the education system is incomprehensive, people are not capable to climb up the social ladder. Another problem is its health issue. In rural area, in only every 7000 people there is one doctor. Many medical personnel there is just at very basic level and unprofessional. The life expectancy at birth in 2011 is 66.6(United Nation).bolivia-day-trip.jpg

TRANSPARENCY in Bolivia isn't very high. On one hand, there are laws promoting transparency within the society, for example, the Financial Administration and Control Law, the State Employees Statute Act, and the Sworn Declaration of Property and Income Law. On the other hand, corruption is rampant. Police corruption is in particular a most serious in issue. Though there is a law to combat official corruption, it is ineffectively carried out. Everyone can engage in corrupt practice for impunity. Besides, currently, there is a lack of law to provide access to government information. The transparency in information and governmental action is lagging behind.

Talking about POLITICAL PARTICIPATION, Bolivians have the right to vote in elections and assemble for protests. Since 2009, new constitution states that the president is voted by direct election. Basically, the transitions of power throughout years have been peaceful. Citizens are also entitled to join the political party according to their choice.

Besides, people also enjoy civil liberty there. They can have freedom of speech in different forms, for example, demonstration or releasing press. However, in reality, the freedom of speech is violated sometimes. For example, when political protests devolve into violence, police use forceful measures to restore order .The government are criticized as politicizing the content that the media produced. Therefore, the independence of media is restricted.

Overall speaking, Bolivia does not gain high degree of development in every aspect. It only reaches basic level in some points, especially in economic field. On surface, development in certain aspects, for example, civil liberty isn’t far lagging behind. But deep rooted problem also drag it down. Generally, the development level is low.

World Bank (2010),GDP (currentUS$), [online] available at:

United Nation2007,International Human Development Indicator, [online] available at:

World Bank2008 ,Literacy rate, adult total (% of people ages 15 and above),[online] available at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

United Nation2011,Life expectancy at birth, total (years), [online] available at: